Bone Markings

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TERMPRONUNCIATIONDESCRIPTION/TRANSLATIONEXAMPLES
AngleANG-gulAn inside or outside cornerAngle of mandible
Inferior angle of scapula
Lateral angle of scapula
Superior (medial) angle of scapula
Subpubic angle
BodyBOD-eeThe main or central portion of a boneBody of sphenoid bone
Body of mandible
Body of vertebra
Body of sternum
Body of rib
BorderBOHR-derEdge or boundary of a boneSuperior border of scapula
Medial (vertebral) border of scapula
Lateral (axillary) border of scapula
CondyleKON-dyleRounded bump; usually fits into a fossa on another bone to form a joint [literally knuckle]Occipital condyle
Lateral condyle of femur
MediaLateral condyle of tibial condyle of femur
Medial condyle of tibia
CrestkrestModerately raised ridge; generally a site for muscle attachment [literally tuft or comb]Iliac crest of coxal (pelvic) bone
Pubic crest of coxal (pelvic) bone
Intertrochanteric crest of femur
Crest of tibia
Epicondyleep-i-KON-dyleBump near a condyle; often gives the appearance of a “bump on a bump”; for muscle attachment [literally upon a knuckle]Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Medial epicondyle of humerus
Lateral epicondyle of femur
Medial epicondyle of femur
Facetfah-SET or FASS-etFlat surface that forms a joint with another facet or flat bone [literally little face]Superior articular facet of vertebra
Inferior articular facet of vertebra
FissureFISH-urLong, cracklike hole for blood vessels / nerves [literally a split]Superior orbital fissure of sphenoid
Inferior orbital fissure of sphenoid
Foramen
(pl., foramina or foramens)
foh-RAY-men or FOH-ra-men
(foh-RAM-in-ah or foh-RAY-menz)
Round hole for vessels and nerves [literally hole]Stylomastoid foramen of temporal bone
Jugular foramen of temporal bone
Supraorbital foramen of frontal bone
Foramen rotundum of sphenoid bone
Optic foramen of sphenoid bone
Foramen ovale of sphenoid bone
Foramen lacerum of sphenoid bone
Foramen spinosum of sphenoid bone
Foramen magnum of occipital bone
Infraorbital foramen of maxilla
Mandibular foramen
Mental foramen of mandible
Spinal foramen of vertebra
Obturator foramen of coxal (pelvic) bone
Fossa
(pl., fossae)
FOSS-ah
(FOSS-ee)
Depression; often receives an articulating bone [literally ditch]Mandibular fossa of temporal bone
Jugular fossa of temporal bone
Subscapular fossa
Olecranon fossa of humerus
Coronoid fossa of humerus
Intercondylar fossa of femur
HeadhedDistinct epiphysis on a long bone, separated from the shaft by a narrowed portion (or neck)Head of rib
Head of humerus
Head of radius
Head of ulna
Head of metacarpal bone
Head of femur
Head of fibula
Head of metatarsal bone
Line
(Latin linea)
lyne
(LEEN-ee-ah or LIN-ee-ah)
Similar to a crest but not raised as much (is often rather faint)Superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Inferior nuchal line of occipital bone
Superior temporal line of parietal bone
Inferior temporal line of parietal bone
Intertrochanteric line of femur
Linea aspera of femur
Supracondylar lines of femur
Intercondylar line of femur
MarginMARJ-inEdge of a flat bone or flat areaSupraorbital margin of frontal bone
Infraorbital margin of maxilla
Meatus
(pl., meatus or meatuses)
mee-AYT-us
(mee-AYT-us-ez)
Tubelike opening or channel [literally passage]External acoustic meatus of temporal bone
Internal acoustic meatus of temporal bon
NecknekA narrowed portion, usually at the base of a headNeck of mandible
Neck of rib
Anatomical neck of humerus
Surgical neck of humerus
Neck of radius
Neck of femur
NotchnotchA V-like “cut” out of the margin or edge of a flat areaSupraorbital notch
Trochlear (semilunar) notch of ulna
Radial notch of ulna
Greater sciatic notch of coxal bone
Lesser sciatic notch of coxal bone
Intercondylar notch of femur
ProcessPRAH-ses or PROH-sesProjection or raised areaMastoid process of temporal bone
Zygomatic process of temporal bone
Styloid process of temporal bone
Temporal process of zygomatic bone
Alveolar process of maxilla
Palatine process of maxilla
Condylar process of mandible
Coronoid process of mandible
Alveolar process of mandible
Spinous process of vertebra
Transverse process of vertebra
Superior articulating process of vertebra
Inferior articulating process of vertebra
Xiphoid process of sternum
Coracoid process of scapula
Styloid process of radius
Coronoid process of ulna
Styloid process of ulna
Ramus
(pl., rami)
RAY-mus
(RAY-mye or RAY-mee)
Curved portion of a bone, like a ram’s horn [literally branch]Ramus of mandible
Superior pubic ramus
Inferior pubic ramus
SinusSYE-nusCavity within a bone [literally hollow]Frontal sinus
Sphenoid sinus
Ethmoid sinus
Maxillary sinus
SpinespyneSharp, pointed process; similar to crested but raised more; for muscle attachment [literally thorn]Spine of scapula
Spine of vertebra
Anterior superior spine
Anterior inferior spine
Posterior superior spine
Posterior inferior spine
Ischial spine
Sulcus
(pl., sulci)
SUL-kus
(SUL-kee or SUL-kye or SUL-sye)
Groove or elongated depression [literally trench]Intertubercular sulcus
Radial sulcus
Trochantertroh-KAN-ter or TROH-kan-terLarge bump for muscle attachment (larger than a tubercle or tuberosity) [literally runner]Greater trochanter of femur
Lesser trochanter of femur
TubercleTOO-ber-kulSmall tuberosity (see below); small oblong bump [tubercle is literally small bump or small lump]Tubercle of rib
Greater tubercle of humerus
Lesser tubercle of humerus
Pubic tubercle
Adductor tubercle of femur
Tuberositytoo-ber-AH-sih-teeOblong, raised bump, usually for muscle attachment; also called a tuber; a small tuberosity is called a tubercle [tuber is literally bump or lump]Frontal tuberosity
Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Radial tuberosity
Ischial tuberosity
Tibial tuberosity

  1. Bone marking names are arranged alphabetically, not by location, structure, or function.
  2. In Latin, modifiers follow the terms they describe. Thus, foramen magnum can be translated in exact parallel as “hole that is huge” but is best rendered as “huge hole.”
  3. Literal translations of structure names may be helpful in locating them or remembering their shape or function. However, they are not necessarily accurate or complete descriptions of the structure.
  4. Some alternate pronunciations are given here but many other pronunciations are possible.

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